Figure 1. a) Shanidar Cave as viewed from the south; b) plan of Ralph Solecki's excavations at Shanidar Cave showing Solecki's trench (black grid), the locations of the Neanderthal skeletons he discovered (numbered) and the area of the new excavations undertaken since 2015 (red outline) (photograph by G. Barker, illustration by R. Solecki & R. Lane). The individual - dubbed Shanidar Z - was perhaps in his or her 40s or 50s. One of the most significant archaeological sites of the 20th century is Shanidar Cave in Iraqi Kurdistan. The cave was a pivotal site for mid-20th century archaeology. "In recent years we have seen increasing evidence that Neanderthals were more sophisticated than previously thought, from cave markings to use of decorative shells and raptor talons,” Pomeroy added. Shanidar Cave is a large, south-facing, karstic cave located at around 750m asl in the foothills of the Baradost Mountains of north-east Iraqi Kurdistan ().Between 1951 and 1960, Ralph Solecki dug an approximately 20 × 6m trench, oriented roughly north–south, in the centre of the cave floor. Introduction. Researchers believe they cared for one another, produced art and incorporated symbolic objects into their culture. Earlier excavations of Shanidar cave in northern Iraq suggested that flowers were scattered on the body of one Neanderthal before being deliberately buried. The cave was a pivotal site for mid-20th century archaeology. The researchers say there is strong early evidence that Shanidar Z was deliberately buried. About 10 Neanderthal bodies have been unearthed there, of which one may have been laid to rest on a bed of flowers. However, this idea was not widely accepted at the time, as there was a possibility that the flowers could have been added later by burrowing rodents. Other clues also hint that Shanidar Z was intentionally buried. The individual – dubbed Shanidar Z – was perhaps in his or her 40s or 50s with their sex undetermined. At this site, over 60 years ago, scientists unearthed the bones of … Another extraordinary site is Shanidar Cave in Iraq, which some think was an actual Neanderthal graveyard. Remains of 10 Neanderthals – seven adults and three infants – were dug up there 60 years ago, offering insight into their physical characteristics, behaviour and diet. An articulated skeleton is one where the bones are still arranged in their original positions. The sex was undetermined. One of the individuals, called Shanidar 4, was surrounded by clumps of pollen, and archaeologists wondered whether other Neanderthals had intentionally buried the body and placed flowers at its grave. 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